The camera always takes a certain position in relation to the object being filmed. The filming angle always determines the camera angle and not the angle of the filmed object. The camera angle has a spatial and a psychological role. In the sense of creating the film space, it shows us when the characters have different heights (child, adult person) or different positions in space (one is sitting, the other is standing). In the psychological sense, angles suggest power or powerlessness.
Bird’s eye view – most people rarely observe the world from this perspective, that’s why such shots can initially appear unrecognisable or abstract. These types of shots can be very expressive because of the abstractness and the feeling of “floating” above the scene.
In film history, the camera was at first always static. The static shot was completely adequate according to the requirements of the early era (making notes and documenting events). The first camera movements were still “robbed” of their creative role; the moving camera mostly just followed the characters, so they wouldn’t “escape” from the shot. In the 1920s, quite a few directors began to introduce camera movements as a thematic and psychological tool of expression. Nowadays, it is almost impossible to imagine an audiovisual work filmed without a motion camera.
Pan – is the change of the angle of the camera’s optical axis. It can be horizontal (panning) or vertical (tilting). When performed with high velocity, we call it a swish pan.
Tilt – around the optical axis of the camera.
Dolly shot (on rails, in a car or train…)
Steadicam – achieves a similar effect as the dolly shot. It has an advantage of being attached to the body of the cameraman, which allows movement in all directions. It is often used as the subjective view of the protagonist.
Crane shot (crane, elevator, hand) – enables the lifting or lowering of the camera as well as diagonal movements.
Hand-held camera – A shot, which shakes, moves… It can be quite unpleasant for the viewer. The constant changing of the axis makes watching difficult. A very strong tool of expression for portraying heavier emotional states.
“Zoom in” and “Zoom out” – coming closer or moving away by changing the focal length.